The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Africa (1981)

The Cambridge History of Africa (1986), ed. J. D. Fage and R. Oliver

Chomsky, Noam,  The Chomsky Reader (1987); Deterring Democracy (1991)

Clodfelter, Michael, Warfare and Armed Conflict: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1618-1991

Compton’s Encyclopedia Online v.2.0 (1997)

Courtois, Stephane, The Black Book of Communism, 1997

Johnson, Paul, Modern Times (1983); A History of the Jews (1987)

Kuper, Leo, Genocide: its political uses in the Twentieth Century (1981)

Levy, Jack, War in the Modern Great Power System (1983)

Marley, David, Wars of the Americas (1998)

Our Times: The Illustrated History of the 20th Century (Turner Publishing 1995)

“PGtH”: Stuart and Doris Flexner, The Pessimist’s Guide to History (1992, updated 2000)

Porter, Jack Nusan, Genocide and Human Rights (1982)

Rosenbaum, Alan S., Is the Holocaust Unique? Perspectives on comparative genocide (1996)

“S&S”: Small, Melvin & Joel David Singer, Resort to Arms : International and Civil Wars 1816-1980 (1982)

Wertham, Fredric, A Sign For Cain : An Exploration of Human Violence (1966)